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1. A test is being conducted to determine if older students have a lower score (<200) in MRCOG. A group of older student’s age > 40 years who took MRCOG is compared to a group of younger students who also took MRCOG. What type of study is being conducted?
2. A test is being conducted to determine if older students have a lower score (<200) in MRCOG. A group of older student’s age > 40 years who took MRCOG is compared to a group of younger students who also took MRCOG. What type of study is being conducted? What is the odds ratio of older students having lower score?
3. A 5 year study is planned to assess the incidence and etiology of DM in 600 pregnant women. The study consists of two groups; one with GDM and the other without. DM is screened every 3 months using HbA1C. Which of the following study design aptly describes the above?
4. A study is conducted to examine the relationship between myocardial infarction and time spent driving when commuting to and from work. One hundred married males who had suffered infarcts were selected and their average commuting time ascertained from either the subject, or if the infarct had been fatal, their spouse. A comparison group of 100 married males who had not suffered infarcts was also selected and their average commuting time recorded. When examining this data for a possibly causal relationship between commuting time and the occurrence of myocardial infarcts, the most likely measure of association is
5. A correlation of +0.56 is found between alcohol consumption and systolic blood pressure in men. This correlation is significant at the 0.001 level. From this information we may conclude that:
6. A physician wishes to study whether moderate alcohol consumption is associated with heart disease. If, in reality, moderate alcohol consumption leads to a relative risk of heart disease of 0.60, the physician wants to have a 95% chance of detecting an effect this large in the planned study. This statement is an illustration of specifying
7. What statistical test would you run to test whether there was a difference between the cumulative mortality rate for City A and City B?
8. A report of a clinical trial of a new drug for herpes simplex II versus a placebo noted that the new drug gave a higher proportion of success than the placebo. The report ended with the statement: chi-square = 4.72, p <0.05. In light of this information, we may conclude that
9. A survey of a popular seaside community (population 1,225) found the local inhabitants to have unusually elevated blood pressure. In this survey, just over 95% of the population had systolic between 110 and 190. Assuming a normal distribution for these assessed blood pressures, the standard deviation for systolic blood pressure in this seaside community is most likely
10. Initial research supported a conclusion that a positive relationship exists between coffee consumption and heart disease. However, subsequent, more extensive research suggests that the initial conclusion was the result of a type I error. In this context, a type I error
11. A recently published report explored the relationship between height and subjects’ self-reported cholesterol levels in a sample of 44- to 65-yearold males. The report included a correlation of +0.02, computed for the relationship between height and cholesterol level. One of the possible interpretations of this correlation is:
12. A researcher wishing to demonstrate the efficacy of a new treatment for hypertension compares the effects of the new treatment versus placebo. This study provides a test of the null hypothesis that the new treatment has no effect on hypertension. In this case, the null hypothesis should be considered as
13. A standardized test was used to assess the level of depression in a group of patients on a cardiac care unit. The results yielded a mean of 14.60 with a confidence interval of 14.55 and 14.65. This presented confidence interval is
14. Which method is used to assess the existing knowledge of a group?
15. You would like to undertake research to assess an intervention. What is the next most appropriate step to be taken?
16. In a RCT
17. Following was the result of a Meta analysis.
What is the overall conclusion of this study?
18. All the following are true regarding the systematic review and meta-analysis except
19. In a case-control study, patients with lung cancer had a highly significantly lower cholesterol level than did controls. This provides strong evidence that:
20. In a case-control study, 101 stroke patients were compared with 137 healthy controls. Among the results were: analysed by Chi-squared test
Which among the following is false?
21. In a case-control study to investigate oral contraception and breast cancer:
22. For a t test for two independent samples to be valid:
23. The paired t test is:
24. When a distribution is skewed to the right:
25. Which among the following is not a continuous variable:
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