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1. A test is being conducted to determine if older students have a lower score (<200) in MRCOG. A group of older studentâ€™s age > 40 years who took MRCOG are compared to a group of younger students who also took MRCOG. What type of study is being conducted?
2. A test is being conducted to determine if older students have a lower score (<200) in MRCOG. A group of older studentâ€™s age > 40 years who took MRCOG are compared to a group of younger students who also took MRCOG. What type of study is being conducted? What is the odds ratio of older students having lower score?
< 40 years | > 40 years | |
Score < 200 | 40 | 60 |
Score > 200 | 160 | 200 |
Â 3. A 5 year study is planned to assess the incidence and etiology of DM in 600 pregnant women. The study consists of two groups; one with GDM and the other without. DM is screened every 3 months using HbA1C. Which of the following study design aptly describes the above?
Â 4. A study is conducted to examine the relationship between myocardial infarction and time spent driving when commuting to and from work. One hundred married males who had suffered infarcts were selected and their average commuting time ascertained from either the subject, or if the infarct had been fatal, their spouse. A comparison group of 100 married males who had not suffered infarcts was also selected and their average commuting time recorded. When examining this data for a possibly causal relationship between commuting time and the occurrence of myocardial infarcts, the most likely measure of association is
Â 5. A correlation of +0.56 is found between alcohol consumption and systolic blood pressure in men. This correlation is significant at the 0.001 level. From this information we may conclude that:
Â 6. A physician wishes to study whether moderate alcohol consumption is associated with heart disease. If, in reality, moderate alcohol consumption leads to a relative risk of heart disease of 0.60, the physician wants to have a 95% chance of detecting an effect this large in the planned study. This statement is an illustration of specifying
7. What statistical test would you run to test whether there was a difference between the cumulative mortality rate for City A and City B?
Year 1 | Year 2 | Year 3 | Year 4 | Year 5 | |
City A Mortality in % | 4 | 6 | 10 | 15 | 22 |
City B
Mortality in % |
2 | 3 | 7 | 10 | 12 |
8. A report of a clinical trial of a new drug for herpes simplex II versus a placebo noted that the new drug gave a higher proportion of success than the placebo. The report ended with the statement: chi-square = 4.72, p <0.05. In light of this information, we may conclude that
9. A survey of a popular seaside community (population 1,225) found the local inhabitants to have unusually elevated blood pressure. In this survey, just over 95% of the population had systolic between 110 and 190. Assuming a normal distribution for these assessed blood pressures, the standard deviation for systolic blood pressure in this seaside community is most likely
10. Initial research supported a conclusion that a positive relationship exists between coffee consumption and heart disease. However, subsequent, more extensive research suggests that the initial conclusion was the result of a type I error. In this context, a type I error
11. A recently published report explored the relationship between height and subjectsâ€™ self-reported cholesterol levels in a sample of 44- to 65-yearold males. The report included a correlation of +0.02, computed for the relationship between height and cholesterol level. One of the possible interpretations of this correlation is:
12.A researcher wishing to demonstrate the efficacy of a new treatment for hypertension compares the effects of the new treatment versus a placebo. This study provides a test of the null hypothesis that the new treatment has no effect on hypertension. In this case, the null hypothesis should be considered as
13. A standardized test was used to assess the level of depression in a group of patients on a cardiac care unit. The results yielded a mean of 14.60 with confidence interval of 14.55 and 14.65. This presented confidence interval is
14. Which method is used to assess the existing knowledge of a group?
15. You would like to undertake research to assess an intervention. What is the next most appropriate step to be taken?
Â
16. In a RCT
17. Following was the result of a Meta analysis.
What is the overall conclusion of this study?
Â
18. All the following are true regarding systematic review and meta analysis except
19. In a case-control study, patients with lung cancer had a highly significantly lower cholesterol level than did controls. This provides strong evidence that:
20. In a case-control study, 101 stroke patients were compared with 137 healthy controls. Among the results were: analysed by Chi squared test
No smoking | Smoking present | total | |
Case | 71 | 30 | 101 |
control | 36 | 101 | 137 |
Chi-squared = 45.5, 1 degree of freedom, Odds ratio = 6.6 (95% confidence interval = 3.8 to 11.8) |
Which among the following is false?
21. In a case-control study to investigate oral contraception and breast cancer:
22. For a t test for two independent samples to be valid:
23. The paired t test is:
24. When a distribution is skew to the right:
25. Which among the following is not a continuous variables:
26. Which among the following are qualitative variables:
27.A study design that randomly assigns participants into an experimental group or a control group is call as
28. A prospective study was conducted to assess the relationship between extreme exercising and premature delivery. Results showed a Relative risk of 4. What is the risk attributable to extreme exercising?
29. In statistics: Which is wrong
30. In statistics: Which is wrong
31. The presence of a disease may be absolutely confirmed if
32. A disease may be excluded from consideration because:
33. Tachycardia is always present in hyperthyroidism. Which of the following are true?
34. A study of 200 hospitalised patients with complications related to pneumonia show that their serum level of cholesterol is a normally distributed variable with a mean of 210 and SD of 15. How many patients would you expect to have cholesterol value >240?
35. The prevalence of PPH in anemic pregnant women and non anemic pregnant women was compared. The following data was obtained. Based on this what is the relative risk of women who are anemic having PPH compared to those who are not anemic?
PPH yes | PPH no | |
Anemic yes | 250 | 100 |
Anemic no | 1250 | 900 |
36. A new instrument is purchased by a hospital that checks the serum level of beta HCG. The trvalue is 1000 IU/L, but the instrument records 1050, 1051, 1052, 1049 in its repeated readings. What can be concluded about this new instrument?
37.What type of prevention would be checking BP in ANC women for PIH detection?
38. A new cancer bio marker is tested against a gold standard for its diagnostic accuracy. Following are the details.
What happens to specificity if cut off value is changed from B to C?
39. A new cancer bio marker is tested against a gold standard for its diagnostic accuracy. Following are the details.
What happens to sensitivity if cut off value is changed from B to A?
40. A new cancer bio marker is tested against a gold standard for its diagnostic accuracy. Following are the details.
What happens to PPV if cut off value is changed from B to C?
41. A new cancer bio marker is tested against a gold standard for its diagnostic accuracy. Following are the details
What happens to NPV if cut off value is changed from B to A?
42. Read the below scatter plot and answer the following
Which among the following scatter plot has r=+1?
43. Read the below scatter plot and answer the following
Which among the following scatter plot has r= -1?
44. A large study evaluated a test for diagnosing a new disease. It evaluated the test against PCR testing, which serves as a gold standard. Its sensitivity was 70% and Specificity was 90%. What is the Positive Likelihood ratio?
45. A large study evaluated a test for diagnosing a new disease. It evaluated the test against PCR testing, which serves as a gold standard. Its sensitivity was 70% and Specificity was 90%. What is the negative likelihood ratio?
46. Which study design is best for analyzing prevalence of a disease?
47. Which study design is best for analyzing incidence of a disease?
48.Which study design is best for analyzing efficacy of an intervention?
49. Which study design is best for analyzing etiology and prognosis of a disease?
50.When data is combined from smaller studies into a larger sample size, which can then be evaluated statistically in a more robust fashion than the smaller samples the following term is applied
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