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1. A test is being conducted to determine if older students have a lower score (<200) in MRCOG. A group of older student’s age > 40 years who took MRCOG is compared to a group of younger students who also took MRCOG. What type of study is being conducted?
2. A test is being conducted to determine if older students have a lower score (<200) in MRCOG. A group of older student’s age > 40 years who took MRCOG is compared to a group of younger students who also took MRCOG. What type of study is being conducted? What is the odds ratio of older students having lower score?
< 40 years
> 40 years
Score < 200
Score > 200
3.A 5 year study is planned to assess the incidence and etiology of DM in 600 pregnant women. The study consists of two groups; one with GDM and the other without. DM is screened every 3 months using HbA1C. Which of the following study design aptly describes the above?
4. A study is conducted to examine the relationship between myocardial infarction and time spent driving when commuting to and from work. One hundred married males who had suffered infarcts were selected and their average commuting time ascertained from either the subject, or if the infarct had been fatal, their spouse. A comparison group of 100 married males who had not suffered infarcts was also selected and their average commuting time recorded. When examining this data for a possibly causal relationship between commuting time and the occurrence of myocardial infarcts, the most likely measure of association is
5. A correlation of +0.56 is found between alcohol consumption and systolic blood pressure in men. This correlation is significant at the 0.001 level. From this information we may conclude that:
6. A physician wishes to study whether moderate alcohol consumption is associated with heart disease. If, in reality, moderate alcohol consumption leads to a relative risk of heart disease of 0.60, the physician wants to have a 95% chance of detecting an effect this large in the planned study. This statement is an illustration of specifying
7. What statistical test would you run to test whether there was a difference between the cumulative mortality rate for City A and City B?
|Year 1||Year 2||Year 3||Year 4||Year 5|
|City A Mortality in %||4||6||10||15||22|
Mortality in %
8. A report of a clinical trial of a new drug for herpes simplex II versus a placebo noted that the new drug gave a higher proportion of success than the placebo. The report ended with the statement: chi-square = 4.72, p <0.05. In light of this information, we may conclude that
9. A survey of a popular seaside community (population 1,225) found the local inhabitants to have unusually elevated blood pressure. In this survey, just over 95% of the population had systolic between 110 and 190. Assuming a normal distribution for these assessed blood pressures, the standard deviation for systolic blood pressure in this seaside community is most likely
10. Initial research supported a conclusion that a positive relationship exists between coffee consumption and heart disease. However, subsequent, more extensive research suggests that the initial conclusion was the result of a type I error. In this context, a type I error
11. A recently published report explored the relationship between height and subjects’ self-reported cholesterol levels in a sample of 44- to 65-yearold males. The report included a correlation of +0.02, computed for the relationship between height and cholesterol level. One of the possible interpretations of this correlation is:
12. A researcher wishing to demonstrate the efficacy of a new treatment for hypertension compares the effects of the new treatment versus a placebo. This study provides a test of the null hypothesis that the new treatment has no effect on hypertension. In this case, the null hypothesis should be considered as
13. A standardized test was used to assess the level of depression in a group of patients on a cardiac care unit. The results yielded a mean of 14.60 with confidence interval of 14.55 and 14.65. This presented confidence interval is
14. Which method is used to assess the existing knowledge of a group?
15. You would like to undertake research to assess an intervention. What is the next most appropriate step to be taken?
16. In a RCT
17. Following was the result of a Meta analysis.
What is the overall conclusion of this study?
18.All the following are true regarding systematic review and meta analysis except
19. In a case-control study, patients with lung cancer had a highly significantly lower cholesterol level than did controls. This provides strong evidence that:
20. In a case-control study, 101 stroke patients were compared with 137 healthy controls. Among the results were: analysed by Chi squared test
|No smoking||Smoking present||total|
|Chi-squared = 45.5, 1 degree of freedom,
Odds ratio = 6.6 (95% confidence interval = 3.8 to 11.8)
Which among the following is false?
21. In a case-control study to investigate oral contraception and breast cancer:
22. For a t test for two independent samples to be valid:
23. The paired t test is:
24. When a distribution is skew to the right:
25. Which among the following is not a continuous variables:
26. Which among the following are qualitative variables:
27. A study design that randomly assigns participants into an experimental group or a control group is call as
28. A prospective study was conducted to assess the relationship between extreme exercising and premature delivery. Results showed a Relative risk of 4. What is the risk attributable to extreme exercising?
29. In statistics: Which is wrong
30. In statistics: Which is wrong
31. The presence of a disease may be absolutely confirmed if
32. A disease may be excluded from consideration because:
33. Tachycardia is always present in hyperthyroidism. Which of the following are true?
34.A study of 200 hospitalised patients with complications related to pneumonia show that their serum level of cholesterol is a normally distributed variable with a mean of 210 and SD of 15. How many patients would you expect to have cholesterol value >240?
35. The prevalence of PPH in anemic pregnant women and non anemic pregnant women was compared. The following data was obtained. Based on this what is the relative risk of women who are anemic having PPH compared to those who are not anemic?
|PPH yes||PPH no|
36. A new instrument is purchased by a hospital that checks the serum level of beta HCG. The true value is 1000 IU/L, but the instrument records 1050, 1051, 1052, 1049 in its repeated readings. What can be concluded about this new instrument?
37. What type of prevention would be checking BP in ANC women for PIH detection?
38. A new cancer bio marker is tested against a gold standard for its diagnostic accuracy. Following are the details.
What happens to specificity if cut off value is changed from B to C?
39. A new cancer bio marker is tested against a gold standard for its diagnostic accuracy. Following are the details.
What happens to sensitivity if cut off value is changed from B to A?
40. A new cancer bio marker is tested against a gold standard for its diagnostic accuracy. Following are the details.
What happens to PPV if cut off value is changed from B to C?
41. A new cancer bio marker is tested against a gold standard for its diagnostic accuracy. Following are the details.
What happens to NPV if cut off value is changed from B to A?
42. Read the below scatter plot and Answer the following
Which among the following scatter plot has r=+1?
43. Read the below scatter plot and Answer the following
Which among the following scatter plot has r= -1?
44. A large study evaluated a test for diagnosing a new disease. It evaluated the test against PCR testing, which serves as a gold standard. Its sensitivity was 70% and Specificity was 90%. What is the Positive Likelihood ratio?
45. A large study evaluated a test for diagnosing a new disease. It evaluated the test against PCR testing, which serves as a gold standard. Its sensitivity was 70% and Specificity was 90%. What is the negative likelihood ratio?
46. Which study design is best for analyzing prevalence of a disease?
47. Which study design is best for analyzing incidence of a disease?
48. Which study design is best for analyzing efficacy of an intervention?
49.Which study design is best for analyzing etiology and prognosis of a disease?
50. When data is combined from smaller studies into a larger sample size, which can then be evaluated statistically in a more robust fashion than the smaller samples the following term is applied
51. Which among the following can also be a summative WPBA according to new WPBA categorization
52. Which of the following statement is not correct
53. The utility of assessment is a product of
54. Which among the following is false
55. Which among the following is true about population
56.Following is a small subset (n=10) of participants in the Framingham Heart Study. The data values for these ten individuals are shown below. 62 63 64 67 70 72 76 77 81 What is the mean DBP?
57. A sample of 10 women seeking prenatal care at Boston Medical center agrees to participate in a study to assess the quality of prenatal care. At the time of study enrollment, you the study coordinator, collected background characteristics on each of the moms including their age (in years).The data are shown below: 24 18 28 32 26 21 22 43 27 29 . What is the mean age of the pregnant women?
58. Which statements amongst the following are not true?
59. Levels of circulating thyroid hormones provide the basis for classifying patients for diagnosis and therapy. Based on circulating levels, patients are classified as euthyroid (normal levels), hypothyroid (low levels) or hyperthyroid (high levels). What type of variable is this?
60. Side-by-Side Box-Whisker Plots of Body Mass Index in Men and Women in the Framingham Offspring Study is given below. Which statistics would be most appropriate to summarize typical body mass index for men and women?
61. For the screening test for Down syndrome the following results were obtained: What is the sensitivity of this test?
|Screening Test Result||Affected Fetus||Unaffected Fetus||Total|
62. For the screening test for Down syndrome the following results were obtained. Sensitivity 0.9; specificity 0.927; PPV is 0.025; NPV is 0.99. Which following statement about the above scenario is true?
63. Which amongst the following is true regarding standard normal distribution
64.Consider body mass index (BMI) in a population of 60 year old males in whom BMI is normally distributed. What percentage of population has value > 41
65.A crossover trial is conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a new drug designed to reduce symptoms of depression in adults over 65 years of age following a stroke. Mean difference (Depressive Symptoms after New Drug – Symptoms after Placebo) was -12.7and 95% CI was (-14.1 to – 10.7). What is true about the following?
66. A subsample of n=10 participants attending the 7th examination of the Offspring cohort in the Framingham Heart Study. The following 95% confidence interval for the difference in mean blood pressures of men and women was -25.07 and 6.47 units. What is not true about the above scenario?
67. Randomized, Controlled Trial of Long-Term Moderate Exercise Training in Chronic Heart Failure – Effects on Functional Capacity, Quality of Life, and Clinical Outcome. 95% CI of relative risk of death in CHF exercisers compared to CHF non-exercisers is between 0.22 and 0.87. What is true about this scenario?
68. These investigators randomly assigned 99 patients with stable congestive heart failure (CHF) to an exercise program (n=50) or no exercise (n=49) and followed patients twice a week for one year. The outcome of interest was all-cause mortality. Those assigned to the treatment group exercised 3 times a week for 8 weeks, then twice a week for 1 year. Exercise training was associated with lower mortality (9 versus 20) for those with training versus those without. What type of study is this?
69.The hypothetical pilot study on pesticide exposure and breast cancer: What is the odds ratio?
70. The randomized trial that evaluated the effectiveness of a newly developed pain reliever for patients following joint replacement surgery. What is the Relative risk of achieving pain relief, comparing those receiving the new drug to those receiving the standard pain reliever.
|# with Reduction
of 3+ Points
|Incidence with Reduction
of 3+ Points
|New Pain Reliever||50||23||0.4|
|Standard Pain Reliever||50||11||0.2|
71. What among the following is true about p value?
72. Which among the following about types of error is correct?
73. The NCHS reported that the mean total cholesterol level in 2002 for all adults was 200. Total cholesterol levels in participants who attended the seventh examination of the Offspring in the Framingham Heart Study are summarized as follows: n=3,310, x̄ =200.3, and s=36.8. p value was <0.001. Which of the following about difference in cholesterol is true?
74. The medicine professor sends some concept videos and material on thyroid gland metabolism to all his students on emails. 2 days later, he makes the students into small groups and gives some case scenarios to them, asks them to interpret, analyze and come to conclusions
there are postgraduates to help each group
next day an objective test was given as MCQ on the same topic.
75. The gynecologist demonstrates the skill of pap smear obtaining in OPD without talking in real time. next he repeats the process describing all steps. next he repeats the steps and trainee will describe the steps. Lastly the trainees do and describe the steps all by his own. Which is true about this T-L method?
76. an anesthesia assistant professor repeatedly encouraging his pg student to practice spinal anesthesia technique on manikins fist and later in duty on patients under his guidance. He always promptly gives feed back at frequent intervals. student also reflects and reports back every day on his errors or improvement.
77. Which T-L method/technique amongst the following has the highest average retention rate?
78. Which among the following is not a workplace based assessment?
79. Which among the following is are all workplace based assessments?
80. Ability to interpret LFT report in jaundice case is called
81. which is not a TL method of teaching clinical reasoning
82. best method of assessing wide content area in short period
83.spikes model is for
84. Which among the following is not a competency based assessment
85. The committee responsible for Attitude, ethics and communication implementation in an institution decided to implement newer techniques to teach soft skills like ethics and professionalism to medical students. They planned to instruct the students to write their experiences in the wards during their clinical posting and present it during the session. Discussions followed the presentations. The exercise of students putting in writing their experiences at the end of each day is known as
86.Before subjecting them to directly performing Per rectal examination, their learning on the Clinical Anatomy relevant to prostatomegaly (BPH), benign and malignant disease of prostate are asked by a teacher by questioning. What is this T-L method?
87. A clinical trial is run to compare weight loss programs. Three popular weight loss programs are considered. The first is a low calorie diet. The second is a low fat diet and the third is a low carbohydrate diet. For comparison purposes, a fourth group is considered as a control group. Which if the following test is used to find is there a statistically significant difference in the mean weight loss among the four diets?
88. A study is designed to test whether there is a difference in mean daily calcium intake in adults with normal bone density and adults with osteopenia. The data collected revealed that daily calcium intake had extreme outliers. Which test is used to test significance of difference between two means in this case?
89. Consider the clinical trial outlined below in which three competing treatments for joint pain are compared in terms of their mean time to pain relief in patients with osteoarthritis. Which of the following is true if p = 0.04?
90. A University conducted a survey of its recent graduates to collect demographic and health information for future planning purposes as well as to assess students’ satisfaction with their undergraduate experiences. The next year the University launched a health promotion campaign on campus in an attempt to increase health behaviors among undergraduates. The following are the data. Which statistical test is used to test the shift toward more regular exercise following the implementation of the health promotion campaign
|No Regular Exercise||Sporadic Exercise||Regular Exercise||Total|
|After health campaign||255||125||90||470|
|Before health campaign||282||117.5||70.5||470|
91. What would be an appropriate statistical test to examine whether there is an association between Surgical Apgar score (0-4; 5-6; 7-10) and patient outcome (no morbidity; minor morbidity; major morbidity)?
92.What regarding confounder in a study is false
93. Age> 50 yrs and age < 50yrs was a confounder for risk of CVD and physical inactivity. Which among the following about confounding effect is false
94. A study of a random sample of 100 Americans summarizes the relationship between alcohol consumption and age with a correlation coefficient r= 0.03. The value of r tells us:
95. A Phase II clinical trial designed to investigate the effectiveness of a new drug to reduce symptoms of asthma in children. A total of n=10 participants are randomized to receive either the new drug or a placebo. The outcome is a count and in this sample the data do not follow a normal distribution. Which statistical test is used to find the significance of the effect of drug over placebo?
96.Consider a clinical investigation to assess the effectiveness of a new drug designed to reduce repetitive behaviors in children affected with autism. Below are the data of a study i.e. not normally distributed. The question of interest is whether there is significant improvement after treatment. Which test is used to find this?
|Child||Before Treatment||After 1 Week of Treatment|
97. A personal trainer is interested in comparing the anaerobic thresholds of elite athletes. The following data are anaerobic thresholds for distance runners, distance cyclists, distance swimmers and cross-country skiers. Which test is used to find is there a difference in anaerobic thresholds among the different groups of elite athletes=5 and not normally distributed
|Distance Runners||Distance Cyclists||Distance Swimmers||Cross-Country Skiers|
98. What Is true about risk ratio?
99. Which of the following is the correct interpretation of an Absolute risk reduction? Incidence of CVD in statin group is 0.2 and non statin group is 0.4.
100. What is true about case control and cohort studies?
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