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A. Synchronous learning
B. Asynchronous learning
C. Blended learning
D. Formative assessment
E. Summative assessment
F. Formative as well as summative
I. Peer coaching
J. Schema activation
K. Schema reinforcement
L. Simple procedural hierarchy
M. Complex procedure hierarchy
N. Doughnut round
The above are T-L and assessment methods. Below are certain scenarios given, choose correct options.
1. In a virtual classroom two people are communicating in real time through videoconferencing/online chat. , learners are able to interact with other learners and their teachers during the lesson. What is this learning scenario called?
2. Participants are studying at their free time. They are using e course to go through the content. They follow curriculum at their own pace using internet as their resource.
3. This assessment was designed for learning by giving feedback, this was longitudinal and continuous. These are also called as Supervised learning events (SLE). What is this type of assessment?
4. The trainees learn part of the course by online chat/video conferencing real time and part of the course by e online course at their own time. What is this learning scenario called?
5. This assessment was designed as an assessment of learning by deciding if a student is eligible to go to next level and certified. Are also known formally as Assessments of Performance (AoP). What is this type of assessment?
6. CbD (Case based discussion) and Mini CEX are which type of WPBA?
7. OSATS is which type of WPBA?
8. Annual job appraisal, peer observation, GCSE mock examination, part 2 MRCOG OSCE station are which type of assessment?
9. Driving theory test, part 1 MRCOG, IQ test, the obstetrician and gynecologist article on CPD (Continued professional development) and Job interview are all which type of assessment?
C. Case studies
D. Study guide
E. Simple procedural hierarchy
F. Complex procedural hierarchy
G. Didactic lecture
H. Self directed learning
I. Problem based learning
J. Doughnut rounds
K. One minute preceptor
L. Direct observation of procedural skills
M. Peer coaching
N. Schema refinement
Following are some of the T-L methods. Identify the T-L method
10. A teacher wants to modalities to be used in a survey that he is planning to conduct with the help of the trainees. He invites them for a discussion about how to do it. There they invite the raw ideas, discuss possibilities without worrying too much about its correctness. Later they sort and prioritise the discussion findings that are recorded on a flip chart. What is this mode of T-L method?
11. A teacher was unsure of present knowledge of students on management of premature labour. He gives instruction and questions to one person and ask them to think alone and later discuss in pair and extend the discussion with group of four and then the group of eight. He allows for the discussion to escalate with the varying knowledge level of students. What is this T-L method?
12. The teacher asks the students to prepare a case of pheochromocytoma in pregnancy that is so rare but they have recently seen in practice. And then ask them study about its aetiopathogenesis and management in a group discussion. What is this type of T-L method?
13. A teacher prepares a book which is informative, integrated, interesting and interactive and help assisting in the management of student learning, providing a focus for student activities relating to learning and also providing information on the topic/subject to study. What is this T-L material called as?
14. A clinician demonstrates per vaginal examination to a group of students. He does not give any description. There is no further discussion and the students are allowed to observe the procedure. What is this teaching method?
15. A clinician allows a first year trainee to assist him in cesarean section. He while performing explains the procedure and the trainee is allowed to observe. In subsequent operative procedures the trainee is asked questions on his understanding and his knowledge is judged. Later he is allotted to perform cesarean along with the surgeon in place. And the assessment and corrections happen. Later the trainee is allowed to perform section with surgeon on call. What is this T-L method?
C. Positive predictive value
D. Negative predictive value
E. Risk ratio
F. Odds ratio
G. Absolute risk reduction
H. Number needed to treat
I. Negative likelihood ratio
J. Positive likelihood ratio
The following are some of the definitions. Choose the appropriate answer.
16. The percentage of healthy people who are correctly identified as not having the condition
17. The percentage of sick people who are correctly identified as having the condition
18. Ratio of incidence of disease in exposed to incidence of disease in un exposed
19. A screening test’s probability, when returning a positive result, of correctly identifying, from among people who might or might not have a condition, all people who do actually have that condition
20. Ratio of probability of having disease in exposed to probability of having disease in unexposed
21. A screening test’s probability, when returning a negative result, of correctly identifying, from among people who might or might not have a condition, all people who indeed do not have that condition
C. 60 and 70
The following are the data from a study conducted on the outcome of CVD.
|Participant ID||Systolic Blood Pressure||Diastolic Blood Pressure||Total Serum Cholesterol||Weight||Height||Body Mass Index|
22. What is the median weight?
23. What is the mean diastolic BP?
24. What is the mean height?
25. What the mode of height?
26. What is the mode of diastolic BP?
A diagnostic accuracy study of a new test to diagnose DIC in women reveals following data. There were 500 DIC patients and 500 who did not have DIC. 450 of those having disease tested positive and 480 of those not having DIC tested negative.
27. What is the sensitivity of the new test?
28. What is the specificity of new test?
29. What is the PPV of new test?
30. What is the NPV of new test?
New diagnostic study is being evaluated for its accuracy to diagnose Stroke. The sensitivity was 90% and specificity was 50%. In the study there were 200 patients who truly had stroke and 200 who truly did not.
31. How many false negatives in the study?
32. How many false positive in the study?
33. What is the PPV?
34. What is the NPV?
Results of a hypothetical placebo controlled RCT of rt-PA in ischemic stroke expressed in percentage terms in several thousand men with hypercholesterolemia, but no previous history of stroke, over a 5 year period. There was 20% “events” in the intervention arm, and 25% “events” in the placebo controlled arm.
35. What is the risk of stroke in persons who are treated compared to those on placebo?
36. The relative risk reduction in the above study is?
37. What is the Absolute risk reduction in the above study?
38. How many should be treated if the drug has to benefit one person?
A. Meta analysis
B. Cohort study
C. Case series
D. Case control
E. Cross sectional observation study
I. Non randomised trial
K. Systematic review
L. Diagnostic accuracy study
The following are some of the study designs. Read the scenario and choose the study design.
39. Two groups of patients, those with lung cancer and those without, were compared to determine the degree of smoking. 85% of lung cancer and 50% of those without were smokers. OR was 1.7. What is this study design?
40. Out of a total 2,497 pregnant women with a gestation age of less than 12 weeks, 2,356 women with singlet pregnancies were selected. Data at gestation outcome were available for 2,177 women. Medical and social factors were evaluated and blood coagulation screening was performed in women in the first trimester. The following obstetrical complications were evaluated after 28 weeks of gestation: preeclampsia, abruptio placentae, preterm labor, intrauterine growth restriction and intrauterine hypoxia. Women with late obstetrical complications were found to have high risk of blood viscosity and an high risk of coagulation potential early in pregnancy.
41. Which type of studies qualifies as level IV level of evidence?
42. The CONSORT statement applies to which type of studies?
43. High quality multicenter RCT was included and the data was further statistically analysed to find the effectiveness of a particular drug. This belongs to highest level of evidence. What is this study design?
44. The aim of this study was to assess women’s knowledge of obstetric danger signs and factors associated with this knowledge. From April to October 2015, a non-random, convenience sample of 372 women in their first year postpartum were recruited. Knowledge of obstetric danger signs was found to be low. What is this study design?
A. Unpaired independent t test
B. Paired t test
C. Mann whitney U test
D. Wilcoxan sign rank test
E. One way ANOVA
F. Kruskal Wallis test
G. Chi square test
H. Fischer’s exact test
I. Pearson’s correlation test
J. Spearman correlation test
K. Simple linear regression
L. Multiple regression
M. Percentage difference
Following are some statistical tests and errors in the study. Chose the appropriate tests.
45. Which test is used to assess distribution of the maternal education level in intervention and control group?
46. Which test is used to assess distribution of the history of abortion level in intervention and control group?
47. Which test is used to assess the Mean score of maternal-fetal attachment before and after training during pregnancy in the intervention and control groups?
48. Which test is used to assess the Mean anxiety score before training during pregnancy in the intervention and control groups?
49. Which test can be used to assess the association between maternal education and history of abortion?
50. Which test is used to assess association between mean anxiety score and maternal fetal attachment?
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